Fire alarm systems

Fire alarm systems

A fire alarm is designed to alert us to an emergency so that we can take action to protect ourselves, employees and the general public.
Fire alarms exist in offices, factories, and public buildings, and they are part of our daily routine but are often ignored until an emergency occurs at this stage, and it may only save our lives.
Whatever the detection method, if the alarm is activated, the devices will warn people in the building of the possibility of fire and evacuate them.
The fire alarm system may also include a remote signal system that can alert firefighters through a central station.
In this article, we will look at the structure and systems of "fire alarm systems".
The "brain" of the system is a fire alarm control panel. It is the central hub for all detector signals that are connected to wires and provides a status indicator for users.
The unit can also be set up to simulate an alarm for use in routine firefighting and evacuation drills, so that all employees know what to do in the event of a real fire
Various types of fire alarm detectors
At the core of the fire alarm system are detection devices, ranging from sophisticated smart smoke detectors and simple glass units that work manually, and there is a wide range of different types, but we can divide them into groups that include:
Heat detectors
The heat detector can operate either on a constant temperature basis, as it will trigger an alarm if the temperature exceeds a predetermined value or it can work on the rate of temperature change
Common heat detectors work similar to electrical fusion, and the detectors contain an easily sensitive alloy that is sensitive to heat when a certain temperature is reached and the alloy turns from solid to liquid which in turn triggers the alarm.
Smoke detectors
There are three basic types of smoke detectors including:
Ionization smoke detector
The ionization smoke detector generally contains two rooms. The first is used as a reference to compensate for changes in ambient temperature, humidity or pressure.
The second chamber contains a radiation source, usually an alpha particle, that ionizes air that passes through the chamber as the current flows between two poles.
When smoke enters the room, the current flow decreases. This decrease in current flow is used to initiate the alarm.
Smoke Detector
The diffuser smoke detector works on tyndal; the photocell and the light source are separated from each other by a dark room so that the light source is not located on the photocell.
The passage of smoke into the room disperses light from the source and falls on the photoelectric cell. The photoelectric output is used to start an alarm.
- Smoke smoke detector
In a hidden smoke detector of light, smoke interferes with a light beam between the light source and the photocell. The PV cell measures how much light it receives.
Variation is used in the photoelectric output to initiate the alarm.
This type of detection can be used to protect large areas through the light source and place the photocell at a distance apart.
Carbon monoxide detectors
Carbon monoxide detectors are also known as CO fire detectors and they are electronic detectors used to indicate the outbreak of fire by sensing the level of carbon monoxide in the air.
Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas produced by combustion.
In this case, these reagents are not the same as the carbon monoxide detectors used at home to protect residents from carbon monoxide resulting from incomplete combustion in devices such as gas fires or boilers.
Carbon monoxide detectors use the same type of sensor used at home but they are more sensitive and respond more quickly.
Carbon monoxide detectors contain an electrochemical cell, which senses carbon monoxide, but does not contain smoke or any other combustion products
• Multiple sensors
Multiple sensor detectors combine inputs from both optical and heat sensors and process them using a sophisticated algorithm built into the detector circuit.
Upon reconnaissance by the control panel, the detector returns a value based on the combined responses of both the optical and temperature sensors. It is designed to be sensitive to a wide range of fires.
• Manual contact points
Manual call point or Break Glass Call Point is a device that allows individuals to raise an alarm by breaking a breakable element in the fascia; this then sounds an alarm.
Various types of fire alarm systems
Fire alarm systems can be divided into four main types;
(Traditional) - (Addressing) - (Smart) - (Wireless)


03 February 2020


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